STEAM & GAS TURBINES:-CURRENT AND COMMON ENGINEERING PROBLEMS & THEIR SOLUTIONS FOR INDUSTRY
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator – about 90% of all electricity generation is by use of steam turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible expansion process.
The Gas Turbine Engineering function in any organisation encompasses many disciplines touching upon different aspects of Gas Turbine plant operation and facility management. The advent of new Gas Turbine designs and applications has transformed this function into one that is becoming highly specialized and increasingly sophisticated. In recent times, there is a huge demand for highly skilled, knowledgeable and practically oriented turbine engineers.
This course provides a comprehensive overview in the area of turbine engineering and is designed to develop your overall skills, boost your career options, and benefit your employer/employee. The numerous practical application tips and shortcuts to engineering problem-solving imparted during the course make it highly practical and relevant to your applications and its successful completion will provide a gateway to a fulfilling, intensive, yet enjoyable career.
Ease of installation, serviceability and operational and design flexibility are critical factors determining the success of any turbine installation. In order to identify and select a suitable system for a particular application, it is important that the selection and design-related parameters are properly understood. For example, fuel economy is critical in the success of any turbine operation.
This course places the tried and tested and latest practices and technologies in perspective, while also equipping the participants with the requisite knowledge and skill sets needed to tackle problems related to various systems in a facility.
Turbines of several types, which have widely varying configurations and applications, are used extensively in the process industry. These turbines represent a significant part of the capital and operating costs of most plants, so optimizing their selection is of major economic importance.
The course is devoted to design features, efficiencies, operating characteristics, reliability, and maintenance implications of turbine drivers.
This course will cover the operating principles of turbines, specifications, their design, thermodynamics, effects of efficiency on operating costs, energy usage, effect on plant costs, special materials of construction, selection, troubleshooting, and maintenance.
The course will also cover plant run-length extension surveys, organizing for successful turnarounds and ongoing reliability improvement, and preventive vs. predictive maintenance strategy decisions.
The course will provide the participant with a basic, as well as advanced turbine technology inventory required to successfully select, apply, troubleshoot, and maintain turbine-related equipment.
Upon completion of this course, participants will have gained a thorough understanding of the various turbine configurations available to virtually every industrial user. Items discussed include mechanical design features, sizing and application criteria, maintainability, reliability, vulnerability, and troubleshooting issues. Participants will learn simple techniques and short-cut methods of machinery selection, which can take the place of tedious hand calculations and will serve as means to determine the sensitivity or influence of parameter changes on equipment performance. Participants will be able to determine the most appropriate and efficient matching of a compressor or pump to a turbine. Participants will also acquire knowledge of operating and maintenance issues by getting to know mechanical design, machinery components, and piping design, as well as proven approaches to monitoring, troubleshooting, and maintenance of compressor installations.
On successful completion of this course, the participant should be able to:-
- Understand the benefits and implications of an engineering problem-solving program for turbines and relate the concepts to the overall operational objectives.
- Think about the turbine as a collection of processes, with inputs that determine the output.
- Use the concept of engineering problem-solving to evaluate the capability of a turbine.
- Recognize the engineering problem-solving model used to improve the performance of turbines.
- Recognize the engineering problem-solving factors that are necessary groundwork for a successful turbine maintenance program.
- The latest educational methods and strategies will be utilized.
- The course is designed to maximize delegate participation.
- Questions and answers are encouraged throughout and at the daily wrap-up sessions. This gives participants the opportunity to discuss with others and the presenter their specific problems and appropriate solutions.
- The course shall be conducted through lectures, case studies, group discussions and exercises to reinforce participants’ learning.
Senior technicians, operators, supervisors, superintendents and corporate engineering, plant planning and design, systems design, equipment selection and evaluation, and equipment maintenance personnel. Also, equipment and systems specialists in engineering contractor firms and managerial and supervisory individuals responsible for operations and maintenance functions.
The course consists of formal content presentation interspersed with content quiz sessions. The presenter’s style involves intensive participant participation.
- Operating Principles,
- Impulse Turbines,
- Reaction Turbines,
- Application Ranges,
- Application Constraints
- Turbine Rotors,
- Steam Chests,
- Glands and Gland Systems,
- Rotor Dynamics,
- Governing Systems,
- Lube Oil Management
Overview of Selection and Sizing of Steam Turbines for Reliability
- Steam (Water) Rates,
- Condensing and Backpressure Turbines,
- Single and Multistage Types,
- Process Considerations
Operation and Maintenance of Steam Turbines
- Run-In and Shut-Down,
- Surveillance and Health Monitoring,
- Performance Measurement,
- Monitoring and Tracking,
- Steam Turbine Washing,
- Steam Turbine Inspection,
- Maintenance, Overhaul and Repair
Basic Approaches to Steam Turbine Troubleshooting
- Examples from Recent Failure Incidents Attributed to Design Defects,
- Processing and Manufacturing Deficiencies,
- Assembly Errors,
- Off-Design or Unintended Service Conditions,
- Maintenance Deficiencies, etc.
Predictive vs. Preventive Maintenance Techniques
- Determination of Which Method to Use
Machinery Reliability Audits and Reviews
- Reliability Impact on Plans
- Life extension,
- rerating and uprating,
- revamp efforts
General Overview of Gas Turbines
- Frame type heavy-duty gas turbines
- Industrial type gas turbines
- Small and micro gas turbines
- Gas turbine components
Fundamental Gas Turbine Cycle Thermodynamica
- Reversible cycles with ideal gases
- Constant pressure or Brayton cycle
- Ideal inter-cooled and reheat cycles
- Actual gas turbine cycles
- List of terms and symbols used
Gas Turbine Components
- Centrifugal compressors
- Axial-flow compressors
- Compressor theory
- Compressor aerodynamics
- Common problems affecting axial compressor operation and performance
- Air compressor performance characteristics
- Combustor performance and efficiency
- Fuel nozzles and igniters
- Emission control
Materials of Construction
- General metallurgical behavior in gas turbines
- Gas turbine blade materials
- Blade manufacturing techniques
- Future materials
Bearings and Seals
- Bearing materials
- Through hardened materials
- Case hardened materials
- Cage materials
- Bearing design principles
- Tilting-pad journal bearings
- Design of thrust bearings
Lubrication System in Gas Turbines
- Oil reservoir
- Pumps and oil jets
- Lubrication oil filters
- Oil coolers
- Relief valves
- Lubricant selection
- Oil system cleaning and conditioning
- Filter selection
- Oil sampling and testing
Fuels and Fuel Supply Systems
- Fuel specifications and fuel properties
- Other important fuel properties
- Fuel treatment
- Economics of fuel selection
- Gas fuels
- Heavy fuels
- Comparative fuel costs
- Cleaning of turbine components
- Fuel supply and control systems
- Dual-fuel operation and operational flexibility
- Integrated gasification combined cycle
Sound Suppression in Exhausts, Air Requirements and Environmental Considerations
- Noise from gas turbine engines
- Sound suppression methods
- Air requirements and environmental considerations
- Starting systems
- Fuel washing systems
- Gear design and performance parameters
- Couplings and shaft alignment
- Shaft alignment
Performance and Mechanical Equipment Standards
- Performance standards
- Mechanical standards
Control Systems and Instrumentation
- Control systems
- Startup and shutdown considerations
- Control of the equipment during operation
- Lifecycle costs
- Condition monitoring systems and their implementation
- Temperature, pressure and vibration measurement
- Campbell diagram
- Gas turbine performance measurement and calculations
- Protection systems and alarms
- Failure diagnostics
Question & Answer Session
End of Workshop